The monoprint and the monotype are one of a kind artworks achieved by applying colored inks to a surface and then transferring that image to paper. In essence: printed paintings. The two terms are often used interchangeably and both are spontaneous techniques that create painterly quality originals.

Monoprints can be found back in the 1600s when artists experimented with intaglio plates, re-wiping and inking in different ways from traditional inking and printing techniques. They were called “painted drawings.”

Rembrandt created the first monotype by applying a heavy film of black or brown ink onto an etching plate, drawing his white lines with a blunt stick and creating tones with a variety of tools. The plate was then printed using a press, as with all intaglio prints.

William Blake became one of the most important artists to work with monotypes. He painted with egg tempera onto a board, retouched with drawing tools or brushes. Using rags, fingers and brushes Edgar Degas experimented with adding richer color to his works, sometimes adding pastels and finishes to enhance the colors.

Paul Gauguin developed his own unique technique called trace monotype. By inking a sheet of paper and laying another sheet over it and drawing, a new linear type of imagery created original painted drawings. Paul Klee used the technique later in his works.

Monoprints are the simpler of the two processes. A handprint on paper is a monoprint. There is always a pattern or part of an image which is constantly repeated in each print, sometimes a pattern or etched plate to add texture. It can be created using any technique: relief, intaglio or planographic. Each print is different from the other, as the artist works each plate individually, adding color or wiping the ink differently each time a print is pulled.

The monotype is created by covering a clean matrix entirely with etching ink, then removing the ink to create the lighter and white areas of the picture being made. A variety of tools can be used to create the lines, figures, and images. In monotypes sometimes a clean plate is used and the colors applied. It involves drawing, painting and printing techniques. It is not possible to create two that are alike.

When the image is ready, the plate is run through the etching press with a piece of dampened rag paper. The ink transfers from the plate to the paper, depending on the thickness of the ink creating expected and unexpected outcomes. Chine colle and frottage are the application of fine Japanese papers or printed papers to the printed image before the actual printing is done.

Both monoprints and monotypes are considered original works and are good investments in fine art. Monotypes usually are valued higher than monoprints as the monoprints are originals but they can exist in a series or edition, each with modifications.

Lithographs, what are they?

September 29, 2009

While most people I talk with know the term etching as an art form, they don’t really know what exactly is involved in this process of intaglio printmaking.  They usually understand the concept of a wood block print or relief printing, recollecting potato or linoleum block prints made is school.

But when it comes to lithographs, the confusion is rampant…and rightfully so.  There are two very different lithographic printing techniques and understanding them both will help collectors and investors of art make better decisions about their print purchases.

Some lithographs are considered as fine art prints, others are mere copies.

Stone or hand-pulled prints are created by artists who design their edition for the process of printing on a flat surfaced stone (litho) using oil base inks and the resistance of water.  Each color requires a different stone and a separate printing.

Prints that are only reproductions are offset lithographs.  This requires taking a photograph of any painting or drawing and having it printed at a commercial printing company.

The cost of creating a stone litho in time and supplies can be near $50 per print and more in comparison to offset lithos at one dollar and usually less.

First clue that the litho might be a fine art print… an edition of less than 250.  The hand prepared stone surface starts to break down in quality and integrity if more.

Second clue, the paper is usually heavier and watermarked.

Third, the image has a painterly quality.  Many artists who like to paint prefer this technique to create multiple artworks as it lends itself to painting rather than the carving required for a wood block print or linear/detailing of an intaglio edition.

Artists who are known for their lithography prints include Goya, Odilon Redon (one of my personal favorites), Toulouse Lautrec, Alphonse Mucha, Picasso,  Jasper Johns, David Hockney, M.C. Esher and many of the Mexican muralists.

Fine art prints are considered original pieces of art.  It is an inexpensive way to collect top artists work.  Be careful of what I call cruise art.  The limited editions of Miro, Picasso and Dali are not limited, they are mass marketed and not hand pulled or authorized for the printing by the artists.  They will be worth a lot less than you pay for them.